The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
A boy herding two geese are depicted in this mosaic.

When you wander through the bustling Arasta Bazaar in Istanbul’s Sultanahmet district, it’s easy to be carried away by the colorful array of goods on display. Amidst the vibrant handwoven carpets and intricate ceramics lies a hidden gem that often escapes the hurried glances of tourists – the Great Palace Mosaic Museum. A small yet historically significant treasure trove tucked away beside the iconic Blue Mosque. In this story, we will unravel the fascinating history and treasures of this modest yet extraordinary museum.

Unearthing History: The Great Palace Mosaics

As I strolled through the labyrinthine alleys of Arasta Bazaar, the Great Palace Mosaic Museum initially escaped my notice, overshadowed by the vibrant array of trinkets and souvenirs that attract every wandering eye. Little did I know that within these unassuming walls lay a collection of mosaics from the Byzantine era, potentially dating back to the reign of Emperor Justinian I (527-565 AD). These mosaics, crafted by master artisans hailing from diverse corners of the Byzantine Empire, are a testament to the artistic brilliance of their time.

The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
In 1935, archaeologists unearthed these mosaics during excavations close to the Arasta Bazaar, near the Blue Mosque. Following their discovery, extensive restoration efforts have brought these mosaics to their current home, the Great Palace Mosaic Museum in Istanbul. Notably, the museum stands exactly where the mosaic floor was first unearthed.
The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
Hunting the tiger. Two hunters with spears in their hands. They are thought to be the guards of the Palace.

The Great Palace of Constantinople once stood as a symbol of the grandeur and historical significance of the Byzantine Empire. However, it was during the reign of Emperor Justinian that the Great Palace reached its zenith. Over the centuries, the palace underwent numerous reconstructions and modifications. For nearly eight centuries, the Great Palace served as the residence of the Byzantine Empire’s most influential leaders. However, as time marched on, the palace’s allure gradually waned, with emperors preferring to establish their residences in the Palace of Blachernae along the Golden Horn’s banks. The palace’s dramatic decline culminated in the devastating Sack of Constantinople during the 4th Crusade in 1204, leading to extensive damage and nearly its complete obliteration.

The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
The figure of mustachioed mask.
The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
Animals (deer in this instance) grazing scenes.
The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
Stallion, Mare and Foal. This scene symbolizes a peaceful rural life. They all have smaller heads compared to their bodies.

A Glimpse into Daily Life

Unlike the religious themes prevalent in many Byzantine artworks, the mosaics at the Great Palace Museum offer a refreshing perspective. They depict scenes of daily life, intricate renditions of animals and humans amidst nature, hunting scenes, and mythological and pastoral motifs. These magnificent mosaics, meticulously created from limestone, earthenware, and colored stones, transport visitors to a bygone era, dating back to 450-550 AD. They once graced the courtyard of the Great Palace of Constantinople, adding grandeur to an imperial residence.

The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
Bear hunting a lamb.
The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
Hunting Rabbits. The dogs are attacking the rabbit on its neck and abdomen. The hunter is depicted to have just released the dogs.
The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
Herdsman milking a goat. An old bearded shepherd is milking his goat and a boy is holding a milk jug.

Preservation Through the Ages

What makes the Great Palace Mosaics truly remarkable is their survival through centuries of upheaval and transformation. Discovered during a joint Turkey-Austria excavation project in the 1930s and 1950s, these mosaics have remained remarkably intact. These tessellated wonders have etched their place in history as one of Istanbul’s most extraordinary discoveries of the past century.

The sheer scale and complexity of these ancient floors are unmatched anywhere else in the world.

The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
During the time when Roman art had not yet fully transitioned to Christianity, the mosaics featured pagan beliefs.

Archaeologists suggest that mosaics adorned approximately 3,000 square meters of the Great Palace flooring, a substantial portion of which has either succumbed to destruction or now lies concealed beneath other structures, including the adjacent Blue Mosque complex, as well as various shops and hotels. The mosaic museum showcases only a fraction of that once-magnificent display – precisely, a mere 250 square meters of floor mosaics.

The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
Mythical griffin devours a reptile. It is hard to believe that these colors are 1,500 years years old. The tigriss-griffin, or gryphon, has two horns and wings and a wild look on its face. Crimson drops of blood come out of its mouth.

These are some of the finest and best preserved mosaics of that era created by the master craftsmen of that time who came from various regions of the empire.

The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
The mosaics lack religious themes and instead celebrate landscapes, folklore, animals, hunting scenes, and daily life.
The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
Two children sitting on a dromedary, with one of them wearing a wreath around his head, holding a bird in one hand and the reins in the other.

A Hidden Story

During the Byzantine era, specifically the 7th and 8th centuries, religious painting was prohibited. To safeguard the precious mosaics from desecration, enormous marble panels were used to cover them. This clever concealment ultimately ensured their preservation. The Ottoman era brought its own twist to the story. A massive fire in the district inadvertently revealed these hidden treasures, leading to extensive excavations that unveiled not only the mosaics but also remnants of the opulent Byzantine palaces that once graced the landscape.

The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
The Eagle and the Snake” mosaic portrays an eagle with its wings raised, capturing a snake coiled around its body. This motif symbolizes the victory of light over darkness and has been a widely used motif since Roman times.
The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
The Great Palace Mosaic Museum, Istanbul
The museum displays only a fraction of the once-magnificent mosaic.

In contrast to the long queues just a few hundred meters away at the Blue Mosque and the Hagia Sophia, the Mosaics Museum retains a serene and tranquil atmosphere, often devoid of the crowds.

The Great Palace Mosaic Museum in Istanbul is evidence of the rich history and artistic prowess of the Byzantine Empire. Its colorful mosaics, depicting scenes of daily life and mythological wonder, provide a unique window into the past. As you explore the Arasta Bazaar, don’t let this hidden gem go unnoticed – for it is a treasure trove waiting to be discovered.

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Fine Art and Travel Photography by Asif Naqvi

Photography is not just about capturing images; it’s a fascinating journey of exploration and observation that connects us with surrounding realities. It is the art of seeing, exploring, and imagining the world around us through a lens. I strongly believe in the ability of images to stimulate thoughts and evoke emotions. Each frame captures a moment in time and tells a story, allowing the viewer to become immersed in the visual narrative commonly known as storytelling.

It is all about seeing, observing, and making visual notes.

Having ventured into the realm of imagination, I stepped into the real world and discovered a newfound appreciation for nature. Grand landscapes, delicate flora, and fascinating fauna inspire me to see the world anew, with open eyes and heart.

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My photography is not just an expression of my vision, but an invitation to see the world from a different angle.

I am always seeking fresh perspectives, hence pushing the boundaries of my art to capture those elusive moments that resonate deeply with my audience. My photography is not just an expression of my vision, but an invitation to see the world from a different angle, to find beauty in the seemingly mundane, and to appreciate the manners of our existence.

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